Displays of ethical conduct linked to abusive behavior in bosses

first_imgThe study, online in the Journal of Applied Psychology, is called “When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing.” Moral licensing is a phenomenon in which people, after doing something good, feel they have earned the right to act in a negative manner.“Ironically, when leaders felt mentally fatigued and morally licensed after displays of ethical behavior, they were more likely to be abusive toward their subordinates on the next day,” said Johnson, an expert on the psychology of the workplace.Johnson and MSU students Szu-Han Lin and Jingjing Ma surveyed 172 supervisors over a several-day period in various industries including retail, education, manufacturing and health care. The goal: examine the consequences of ethical behavior for the leaders who exhibited it.Johnson said it’s not easy to be ethical, as it turns out. “Being ethical means leaders often have to suppress their own self-interest (they must do ‘what’s right’ as opposed to ‘what’s profitable’), and they have to monitor not only the performance outcomes of subordinates but also the means (to ensure that ethical/appropriate practices were followed).”Ethical behavior led to mental fatigue and moral licensing, and this led to leaders being more abusive to their workers. The abuse included ridiculing, insulting and expressing anger toward employees, giving them the silent treatment and reminding them of past mistakes or failures.To combat mental fatigue, Johnson said managers should build in time for breaks during the workday; get sufficient sleep; eat healthy and exercise; and unplug from work outside of the office (which includes shutting off the smart phone at night).Dealing with moral licensing is trickier, as there is not much research on the subject. However, Johnson suggested companies could consider formally requiring ethical behavior. “If such behavior is required, then it’s more difficult for people to feel they’ve earned credit for performing something that is mandatory,” he said. “A sense of moral license is more likely when people feel they voluntarily or freely exhibited the behavior.”Ethical behavior could also be formally rewarded with social praise or money. But the praise or bonus should come relatively soon after the ethical behavior in order to counteract the moral licensing, Johnson said. LinkedIn Share Share on Twitter Is your boss ethical? Does he or she do what’s right, as opposed to what’s profitable?If so, they may turn downright abusive the next day.New research on leader behavior by Russell Johnson, associate professor of management at Michigan State University, suggests ethical conduct leads to mental exhaustion and the “moral licensing” to lash out at employees.center_img Share on Facebook Email Pinterestlast_img read more

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Violence spreads like a disease among adolescents, study finds

first_imgLinkedIn Pinterest Share Share on Facebook “This study shows just how contagious violence can be,” said Robert Bond, lead author of the study and assistant professor of communication at The Ohio State University.“Acts of violence can ricochet through a community, traveling through networks of friends.”Results showed that participants in the study were 48 percent more likely to have been in a serious fight, 183 percent more likely to have hurt someone badly, and 140 percent more likely to have pulled a weapon on someone if a friend had engaged in the same behavior.Bond conducted the study with Brad Bushman, professor of communication and psychology at Ohio State. Their results appear online in the American Journal of Public Health.These results fit in with other studies that have shown that characteristics and behaviors from happiness to obesity to smoking spread within social networks, at about the same rates found in this research.“We now have evidence that shows how important social relationships are to spreading violent behavior, just like they are for spreading many other kinds of attitudes and behaviors,” Bushman said.Data from the study came from 5,913 young people who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) and who were interviewed in-depth in 1994-95 and again in 1996. The ADD Health researchers interviewed as many students (grades 7 to 12) as they could from 142 schools across the country so they could have information on social networks within each school.Participants were asked to name up to five male and five female friends from their school at both of the two interviews. They were asked how often in the past 12 months they had been in a serious physical fight, how often they hurt someone badly enough to need bandages or care from a doctor or nurse, and how often they had pulled a knife or gun on someone.The researchers then analyzed whether each student’s friends (and friends of friends, and so on) had said they committed the same acts of violence.The finding that adolescents were more likely to commit acts of violence if their friends had done so is not surprising, Bond said. Much of that association is related to what scientists call a “clustering effect” – people with similar interests, including the use of violence, tend to cluster together as friends.But the researchers also tested whether friends could influence each other to commit more acts of violence than they might normally commit given their friendship.They could estimate this influence effect because they had data from two different points in time, a year apart. They calculated the effect by determining whether friends had committed more violent acts at the time of the second interview than could be explained by what their shared history at the time of the first interview would suggest.Results showed that each additional friend who had seriously hurt someone increased the likelihood that a participant had hurt someone badly by 55 percent, even after taking into account the clustering effects and other factors. If you include only male participants (who were more likely than females to seriously hurt others), then the likelihood increased to 82 percent.After taking the controls into account, the researchers didn’t find influence effects for being in a serious fight or pulling a weapon on someone. But that doesn’t necessarily mean the influence of friends doesn’t play a role in these violent acts, Bond said.One explanation may be that fights are common enough among these adolescents that it is difficult to find the role of influence. On the other hand, pulling a weapon was rare enough that they may not have had a large enough sample size to determine influence.This study is the first to show how far violent behavior may spread within a social network, Bond said. The findings showed that the influence of one person’s violent act can spread up to two degrees of separation (friend of a friend) for hurting someone badly, three degrees (friend of a friend’s friend) for pulling a weapon on someone, and four degrees for serious fights.The influence declines with each degree of separation, but is still noticeable.For example, a student in the study was about 48 percent more likely to have participated in a serious fight if a friend had been involved in one. But they were still 18 percent more likely to have participated in a fight if a friend of a friend had.This result is particularly important because it shows the value of anti-violence programs.“If we can stop violence in one person, that spreads to their social network. We’re actually preventing violence not only in that person, but potentially for all the people they come in contact with,” Bond said.center_img Email A new study of U.S. adolescents provides some of the best evidence to date of how violence spreads like a contagious disease.Researchers found that adolescents were up to 183 percent more likely to carry out some acts of violence if one of their friends had also committed the same act.But the spread of violence doesn’t just stop at friends – results suggest the contagion extends by up to four degrees of separation – from one person to a friend, to the friend’s friend and two more friends beyond. Share on Twitterlast_img read more

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Quintain secures delisting of Wembley palaces

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OACPS/EU Post Cotonou Negotiations: extending the finish timeline

first_img What has been CARICOM’s Foreign Trade Strategy and Agenda? I last wrote on the now Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS)/European Union (EU) post Cotonou negotiations on June 17 following the meeting of the lead negotiators, EU International Partnerships Commissioner Jutta Urpilainen and the OACPS’ Minister Robert Dussey of Togo, on June 12. At that time, the lead negotiators were anticipating the conclusion of the negotiations by the end of July and were planning to meet again before the end of June. This extension, it seems, was due, among other things, to outstanding sensitive human rights and migration issues still to be resolved which, in some news reports, are seen as primarily between the EU and Africa, although they also apply to the Caribbean and the Pacific. Note too that the EU and Africa are still consulting on the EU’s new Africa Strategy, which it is still hoping will be adopted at a summit with Africa in Brussels in October, COVID-19 permitting. The EU’s new long term budget, 2021-2027, was finally approved at a marathon EU Council Meeting, July 17-21. It included financing for the EU’s COVID-19 Recovery Plan. Oct 14, 2020 Tanzania assumed the six-month Presidency of the OACPS and chair of the Committee of Ambassadors on August 1 and is now expecting to oversee this final phase of the post Cotonou negotiations. ACP/EU Post Cotonou Negotiations: Towards the Finish LineBy Elizabeth Morgan With its conclusion delayed from 2019, the post Cotonou Negotiations between the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States and the European Union (EU) was scheduled to conclude this March and reviewed at a meeting of the ACP Council. When the COVID-19 pandemic was declared, the…June 17, 2020In “Indepth”Marking ACP Day: Transforming the GroupBy Elizabeth Morgan African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Day is customarily commemorated on June 6, which is the date on which the Georgetown Agreement establishing the group, was signed in 1975. This year, the 45th Anniversary, the Day will be officially observed on June 5. Activities were mainly centred at…June 3, 2020In “Indepth”EU AML/CFT Listing of Countries Among Priority Issues of OACPS-EU Post- COTONOU Negotiations(The Bahamas Government Information Service) – A series of virtual negotiation meetings held between the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS) and the European Union (EU) more specifically the European Commission during the week of 8 through 12 June 2020 featured prominently the unilateral action of the EU…June 18, 2020In “General”Share this on WhatsApp Trade in Services – For CARICOM, Tourism dominates It was necessary for the OACPS to have a meeting of its Ministerial Council to review the post Cotonou negotiations, among other things. This meeting was held virtually on July 28 chaired by Gambia. Ministers approved negotiating texts and provided guidance to negotiators. The Council of the OACPS Caribbean Forum (CARIFORM) met prior to this meeting. As I previously mentioned, the 2000 Cotonou Partnership Agreement (CPA), which should have expired in February, was extended to December 31. The new timetable is now indicating that the post Cotonou negotiations will not be concluded until about November. You may recall that the signing ceremony is to be held in Samoa, which now may not happen until mid-2021. This means that the CPA will be further extended to facilitate conclusion of the negotiations and the procedures for signature of the new agreement. The departing EU Ambassador to Jamaica, Malgorzata Wasilewska, in an interview with the Gleaner published on July 28, gave assurance that EU aid allocations to the Caribbean, including Jamaica, would not be reduced especially in light of COVID-19. I hope this will hold true for Jamaica and the rest of the CARIFORUM Member States under the EU’s new budget arrangements and the new OACPS/EU agreement. Suriname assumed the chair of CARIFORUM on July 1 for one year. General elections were held in Suriname on May 25 which also led to a change of government. As of July 16, the new Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Business and International Politics is Mr. Albert Ramdin, who is a seasoned diplomat, having also served in both the CARICOM and OAS Secretariats. Thus Suriname will oversee the Caribbean’s participation in this final stage of the negotiations. Oct 1, 2020 It appears that the lead negotiators met during July. The negotiations clearly were not concluded in July and will now continue in September after the customary August summer break. Trade-in-Services and Technology: More missed opportunities… center_img Oct 7, 2020 The new EU Budget There will be personnel changes in CARIFORUM. Guyana and Jamaica are the CARIFORUM representatives on the OACPS Central Negotiating Committee. Following the protracted issuing of general election results in Guyana, the opposition People’s Progressive Party was declared the winner. The new President, Mr. Irfaan Ali, has appointed Hugh Todd as the Minister of Foreign Affairs.  General elections are now also due in Jamaica on September 3. You may be interested in… In an article reproduced on the AllAfrica news website, a European Commission spokesperson is quoted as informing that the text of the new post Cotonou agreement is 95% completed. It was noted, however, that the last 5% could pose the most difficulties. Relations within the Western Hemisphere: an uneasy alliance The Caribbean OACPS Negotiating Team By Elizabeth Morgan It is reported that development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are concerned about the provisions for Overseas Development Assistance (ODA). Recall that the European Development Fund (EDF), from which the OACPS was funded, is now incorporated into the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument (i.e. EU ODA). There is concern that this could put OACPS financing at risk. Sep 16, 2020 Come September/October, we will have a better indication of the schedule for the conclusion of these negotiations. At this time, we will, hopefully, also have a summary of the key provisions of the agreement particularly from the Caribbean protocol. Submitted by Elizabeth Morgan, Specialist in International Trade Policy and International Politics Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… The negotiations continued and I saw the EU Parliament weighing in to indicate that the Members expected the institutional framework to continue having a role for the joint OACPS/EU Parliamentary Assembly.  We saw that under the revised OACPS Georgetown Agreement, the OACPS will have its own formal Parliamentary Assembly.last_img read more

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Sisco’s demotion latest head-scratching development for Orioles

first_imgHours after Chance Sisco was originally penciled into Sunday’s lineup, the Orioles sent the 23-year-old catcher to Triple-A Norfolk.It was a surprising announcement since manager Buck Showalter had just implied after the 10-4 win over Miami that Sisco was scratched due to being under the weather.“I’m afraid he’s coming down with [something],” Showalter said. “He hasn’t slept in two or three days. … Just talking to him before the game, his energy level. He was ready to go. Just didn’t think it was in his best interest with the off-day tomorrow, but we’ll see. A lot of factors. That was the principal one. He just hadn’t slept any. It’s hard enough to play this game when you have.”Sisco went from starting to being pulled from the lineup to being optioned to the minors in a little over six hours. Weird.To be clear, the rookie isn’t exactly having a great season and has numbers that would definitely warrant a demotion if the club were even remotely in contention. He’s batting just .218 with a .328 slugging percentage and has struck out a whopping 35.5 percent of the time, a rate not far from Chris Davis territory (37.6 percent). However, his .340 on-base percentage is third on the club behind only Manny Machado and Danny Valencia, and a number of others on this roster deserve to be jettisoned before Sisco if we’re basing this solely on performance on a last-place club.Sisco’s defense has been scrutinized throughout his professional career, and he had thrown out just one of the last 18 runners attempting to steal after surprisingly gunning down nine of the first 18 this season. His average pop time — the time from the moment the pitch hits the catcher’s mitt to the moment the ball reaches the fielder at the base a runner is attempting to steal — is still too slow and his arm strength lacking while his pitch-framing metrics also rank among the bottom catchers in the majors, according to Baseball Prospectus.His defense undoubtedly remains a work in progress, but bench coach John Russell is also regarded as a superb catching instructor to continue to oversee Sisco’s development at this level.The timing of this demotion doesn’t seem to make much sense for a club that is 30 games under .500 and going nowhere, but the Orioles are instead expected to summon the 32-year-old Caleb Joseph back to the majors. One could argue that Sisco might benefit from a mental break and a potential confidence boost playing for the Tides, but you won’t find a major league climate with less pressure from a competitive standpoint than Baltimore right now. He also spent his entire 2017 minor-league season with Norfolk, seemingly leaving little for him to prove at that level.What does he need to work on that can’t be done while continuing to play in Baltimore?The Orioles have used a catching carousel all season, going from the tandem of Joseph and Sisco to open the season to Sisco and Andrew Susac to Sisco and Austin Wynns to the current pair of Wynns and Joseph. Sisco’s demotion isn’t the end of the world nor does it mean the Orioles have soured on him to any great degree, but it does appear counterintuitive to what this season should be about the rest of the way.Odds & endsIn an already-lost season from a competitive standpoint, you’re left to look for moments such as hard-throwing rookie Tanner Scott striking out Justin Bour with a nasty slider to leave the bases loaded in the seventh inning of a four-run game on Sunday. Scott is averaging an impressive 12.5 strikeouts compared to 3.1 walks per nine innings this season. … Trey Mancini had been 4-for-50 with runners in scoring position this season before his RBI single in the third inning of Sunday’s win. He batted .340 in that department as a rookie. … Jonathan Schoop drew four walks during the Miami series after registering only seven over his first 47 games. You hope that increased level of patience is a sign of better things to come as the 2017 All-Star second baseman is batting just .212 with a .626 on-base plus slugging percentage. … Brad Brach pitched a scoreless eighth inning, but he issued a walk and is averaging 5.2 free passes per nine innings. He needs to get on a roll and cut down on the walks to improve his trade value. … Sunday marked the first time the Orioles enjoyed a lead of four or more runs since May 24 in Chicago. … The Orioles scored a combined 27 runs on Mother’s Day and Father’s Day. They scored a total of just 18 runs in 11 straight home losses between those holidays.last_img read more

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